Day 1 :
Periodontal disease is a host microbe immune inflammatory disease. Host microbe biofilm or dental plaque is the main etiological factor for periodontal disease initiation and progression. The control of dental plaque by mechanical plaque control is the mainstay of the treatment which is usually insufficient. Therefore, adjunct chemical plaque control measures like mouthrinses, full mouth disinfection and local drug delivery are required. Chlorhexidine is the gold standard drug in chemical plaque control measures. However, it is associated with various side-effects like tooth discoloration, oral hypersensitivity,altered taste sensation and cytotoxic and gentotoxic effects. In our study we have used micronuclei as a marker of genotoxicity in buccal cells of chronic gingivitis patients and had shown that chlorhexidine use is associated with incremental and cumulative genotoxicity.Thus, Chlorhexidine should be used judiciously after doing risk-benefit analysis.
Keywords: Plaque control,Gingivitis, Micronuclie, Genotoxicity
- Oral Surgery
Central University of Ecuador, USA
Surgical guide systems can be divided into static or dynamic. Static surgical guides are made in the laboratory through 3D printing (Prototyping) know as stereolithographic guides (STL) or perforations in templates made on the jaw models. They are called static because they don't allow modification of the planned position during the surgical procedure. Dynamic guides use a mechanical or optical system to transfer the virtual planning to the surgical field, displaying the process on a screen.
Stereolithographic guides can be single or multiple, the multi type guides are generally used with no stabilization screws, changing the guide as the drill diameter increases and have showed similar results than single type guides. Single guides use physical stops for different diameter of drills (Cassetta et al. 2013b).
Objective: to review guide flapless surgery techniques and potential deviation factors in stereolithographic surgical guides for dental implantology, warnings and limitations of the system.
Methods and Topics: Literature review of static and dynamic guides. Information on the accuracy of static computer-guided implant placement, summarize and analyse the overall accuracy. The correlations between factors such as: support (teeth/mucosa/bone), number of templates, use of fixation pins, jaw, template production, guiding system, guided implant placement in articles related to guided surgery with stereolithographic static systems.
Conclusion: Guided surgery may have a limited precision as technique, which surgeons need to be aware in the planning process. Practice master the technique and system used.
Keywords: Surgery, Computer-Assisted; Dental implants; Ambulatory Surgical Procedures ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed
- Oral Biology and Pathology
Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Introduction: Candidiasis is responsible for 85% of fungal infections of the oral cavity in humans. There is little data available on the adhesion of C. albicans to a variety of crowns. This study aimed to investigate the adhesion and colonization of C. albicans to two conventional crowns.
Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, first 36 circular disks of two crowns were created: all-metal and metalceramic (18 for each crown). The disks were transferred to plates containing the suspensions 1 × 105 cfu/ml of C. albicans
colonies. After 40, 80, and 120 minutes, the disks were rinsed in sterile normal saline and shaken at low speed to separate yeast cells. This suspension was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar culture medium with pour plate method and was then counted. Differences were considered significant when pË‚0.05, using computer software SPSS version 18 for windows.
Results: In all-metal and metal-ceramic samples, adhesion and colonization of C. albicans significantly increased during time (pË‚0.001). The lowest adhesion and colonization of C. albicans was observed in metal-ceramic crowns after 40 minutes, and the highest adhesion and colonization of C. albicans in metal-ceramic crowns after 120 minutes.
Conclusion: The results showed that adhesion of C. albicans to all-metal crowns was significantly less than metal-ceramic crowns after 80 minutes and 120 minutes.
Key words: Candida albicans, Crown, All-metal, Metal-ceramic, In-vitro
University of Science and Technology, Yemen.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to oral health of Dental, Medical and Pharmacy students at University of Science and Technology in Yemen.
Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study with questionnaire survey was conducted on 300 students with an age ranged from 19 to 22 years. They were distributed equally and randomly according to gender, specialty and year of the studied academic programs. The target population was the 2nd and 3rd years pre-professional students. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: The highest rate of knowledge scores of the students related to oral health was (87%) with better response in Dental students (95%) than Medical and Pharmacy students (84% & 82% respectively). However, the lowest rate of them was (54.33%) with also better response in Dental students (64%) than Medical and Pharmacy students (52% & 47% respectively). Nearly 72% of them (93% Dental, 65% Medical and 58% Pharmacy) believed that regular visits to the dentist is necessary. Moreover, 56.33% of them (88% Dental, 43% Medical and 38% Pharmacy) showed that private clinic was voted as the preferred place of visit for dental treatment. Approximately 77% of them (86% Dental, 74% Medical and 71% Pharmacy) had visited a dentist at least once in their lifetime. About 61.67% of them (77% Dental, 56% Medical and 52% Pharmacy) brushed their teeth twice daily.
Conclusion: It showed that knowledge, attitudes and practices related to oral health of female students were better than male students. Dental students had better knowledge, attitudes and practices related to oral health than medical and pharmacy students.
Keywords: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, Oral health, Dental, Medical, Pharmacy Students.
- Dental Public Health and Education
Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances (URMAPha), Laboratory of Applied Biology Research (LARBA), Benin.
Introduction : Oral diseases are infectious diseases that modify the leukocyte profile according to the severity of the infection. This change in the leukocyte profile can have serious repercussions on health. The general objective of this study is to evaluate the leucocyte status of people suffering from oral diseases admitted in consultation at the dental clinic of the Hospital of Mènontin in 2018.
Methodes : This descriptive study, prospective to aim analytic focused on a population of 50 people suffering from oral disease namely. This consisted of performing the NFS on the samples using the SYXMEX XS 500i PLC in order to record the leucocyte values.
Results : The results reveal that, the average age is 37.02 ± 16.11 years with a female predominance (66%). Cellulite predominates with 38% inducing leukocytosis (52.63%). For caries, 13.33% had leukopenia, while for gingivitis and periodontitis; all had a normal white count. Similarly, the establishment of the leucocyte formula reveals that patients with caries have a 6,66% monocytosis, a lymphopenia 33,33%, a eosinopenia 26,7% and a neutropenia 26 67%. While periodontitis resulted in 40% monocytosis, 33.33% lymphopenia, and 40% basophilia. On the other hand, gingivitis leads to 63.16% lymphopenia, 45.45% to eosinopenia and 18.18% to neutropenia. Finally, cellulite leads to 80% lymphopenia, 26.32% monocytosis, 10.53% basophilia, 47.37% eosinopenia and 52.63% neutrophil respectively.
Conclusion: In view of these results, the leucocyte variations depend on the dental affection and can have consequences on health.
Practicing Dentistry in the past was simple but not totally effective or given totally the desired outcomes ,nowadays its effective but complex , as more techniques and materials entering our clinics, time after time. we judge the quality of our treatment by the end result we want to achieve , but actually our patients looks to the quality of our treatments once they meet the reception staff , to have a short and fast impression about our level of quality we are providing .this situation let us working to adhere and implement quality standards and roles all around the clinic especially in non-clinical areas such as administration , finance ,purchasing ,human resource to be matched all with the level of clinical services we are providing.
Quality also relates to structure, processes, and outcomes. The structure represents the facilities and the human resources while the processes represent the various clinical, supportive and administrative interactions between the providers and recipients. The outcomes reflect the changes in the healthcare status i.e. relief from symptoms or cure of a disease.
The emphasis should be on what is achieved and not what is done as “doing something may be confused with getting something done2 for that the sound of quality reflection should be seen once and even before the patient decide to visit us . this reflection should cover all the areas of our services ( clinical /administrative ) .to increase the level of patient safety and reduce the level of our system mistakes , this mistakes as studies showed that more than half of the adverse events resulted from medical errors and could have been prevented. When extrapolated to more than 33 million admissions to United States hospitals each year, the results implied that between 44,000 and 98,000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. Thus more people die because of medical errors than from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS3.during this presentation ,attendance will get ideas about quality dimensions , concepts and its integration with daily dental procedures , in propose to implement it as routinely daily work , to achieve highly patient satisfaction and safety rate.
- Cosmetic Dentistry
Columbia University, USA
The anterior maxilla presents with unique challenges for dental practitioners because the goal is dental implant placement that allows creation of esthetic and functional restorations that are in harmony with adjacent teeth and a patient’s unique personality. One of the major factors to accomplishing this is having adequate tissue contours in the dental implant site so that soft tissue around the implant site is consistent with that of adjacent teeth. During dental treatment planning factors such as those related to bone and ridge dimensions, positioning of implants, gingival phenotype, and other factors such as smile line and smile length affect both the pink and white esthetic outcomes of maxillary implant restorations. When defects exist in soft tissue they can contribute to esthetic failures in the maxilla. This presentation reviews treatment planning in the anterior maxilla, soft tissue and bone dimensions that are necessary for esthetic and functional success as well as techniques that are utilized to correct tissue deficiency in the anterior maxilla.