Speaker Biography

Mustafa Farhad

University of kirkuk Iraq

Title: Dental Caries

Mustafa Farhad

Mustafa Farhad Ahmed is the Co-founder of Iraqi Dental Students Association - IDSA and Co-founder of ICU Smile "Iraqi Community for Unified Smile" He is alos a Ambassador of post card of peace. Mustafa Farhad Ahmed is a Vice President for external affairs last term in IDSA ( Iraqi Dental Student Association) . He is also a Volunteer with UNDP / Innovation for development . He was the Head of Iraqi delegate in 5th international of student research in Turkey. He is doing his 4th grad in dentistry studies at University of kirkuk /college of Dentistry.


Dental caries, which is also referred to as tooth decay or cavities, is one of the most common and widespread persistent diseases today and is also one of the most preventable. When you eat certain foods, the bacteria on your teeth breaks them down and produces acids that have the ability to seriously damage the hard tissues of your tooth. The result is the formation of dental caries (cavities). Dental caries causes through a complex interaction over time between acid  producing bacteria and fermentable carbohydrate and many host factors including teeth and saliva. The cavities may be a number of different colours from yellow to black. Typically, dental caries can be spotted on two specific areas of the teeth: occlusal caries, which form on the top most part of the tooth where food particles repeatedly come in direct contact with the teeth and interproximal caries, which are dental caries that form between the teeth. It’s in these two locations where bacteria fester and pose a risk to your oral hygiene. If the teeth and surrounding areas are not cared for properly, the bacteria will begin to digest the sugars left over from food in your mouth and convert it into acids as a waste product. These acids are strong enough to demineralize the enamel on your teeth and form tiny holes—the first stage of dental caries. As the enamel begins to break down, the tooth loses the ability to reinforce the calcium and phosphate structures of the teeth naturally through saliva properties and, in time, acid penetrates into the tooth and destroys it from the inside out. According to the WHO report, dental caries remains a major public health problem in most industrialized countries, affecting 60–90% of school children and the vast majority of adults. The WHO oral health report (1–3) noted that dental caries can be controlled by the joint action of communities, professionals and individuals aimed at reducing the impact of sugar consumption and emphasizing the beneficial impact of fluorides Treatment of dental caries is fillings  are the most common form of treatment for the disease and Crowns are another option for dental professionals when treating dental caries, Root canal Another method of treatment, a dental professional may employ is called a root canal and Extraction In some cases, the tooth may be damaged beyond repair and must be extracted if there is risk of infection spreading to the jaw bone Most children have signs of some inflammation of the gingival tissue at the necks of the teeth among adults the initial stage of gum disease is prevalent this condition is termed gingivitis .